This is the draft version of the newsletter. Figures are not included. The final version is to be published by the Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, Idaho.

Nez Perce National Historical Trail Foundation Newsletter
April 1997

NPNHT Foundation, Letter from the President February 1997

Dear Foundation Members:

Your foundation continues to progress toward a greater roll in working with federal agencies on the trail. We got a big boost just over a year ago when we gathered for the first Nez Perce National Historic Trail Symposium in Lewiston, Idaho. Your help and involvement in this gathering made it a tremendous success. It brought together a diverse group of people, providing an opportunity to share research, thoughts, concerns, and ideas for preserving and better understanding the cultural and historical significance of the Nez Perce National Historic Trail. Among the many important events that took place during the symposium, the revitalization of the NPNHT Foundation stands out. With the election of new officers, the Foundation stands ready to continue its work as an advocate of the Nez Perce Trail.

Organizational work for the foundation continues. Last spring, I attended a workshop at the National Trails Symposium that brought together officers from nearly 20 national scenic and historic trails. The workshop taught us how to plan for growth and more involvement in our trail organization. Thanks to the Forest Service and American Hiking Society for financial help in making this happen. As a result, we have been organizing our foundation calendar and budget to give guidance and planning to our activities and to stay within our limited resources. Although the Foundation officers are geographically dispersed, we stay in close touch by email, fax, and phone to do this planning.

This fall, we will again host an annual meeting/workshop and we encourage you to write the Foundation with ideas on how we can best serve you. Sandi McFarland (Secretary) has volunteered to again take on the task of organizing the workshop. Thanks Sandi.

Dan Gard (Treasurer) has worked closely with me to provide writeups about the trail for national trail newsletters and other publications. He has also prepared the first detailed budget for the Foundation. In addition, Dan has helped me better understand the roll of the federal agencies in the national trails system. Thanks Dan.

Charlie Moses, Jr. (Vice President) has helped us maintain a Nez Perce Tribe orientation in our work and has come up with a plan to create a full time director for the Foundation. Thanks Charlie.

Our foundation welcomes Keith Thurlkill as our partner in his new roll as Trail Coordinator for the Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) National Historic Trail and we say goodby to Mike Beckes. Thanks Mike for all the help you have given the Nez Perce National Historic Trail and our Foundation. More information on Mike and Keith is given elsewhere in this newsletter.

At the symposium this fall, the Foundation will be electing new officers. We need your help in selecting a slate of candidates. Please send us nominations as soon as possible so we can contact people to find out if they are willing to serve. This nomination process is vital to the future success of the Foundation.

The foundation continues to struggle to obtain finances. We are investigating several options to get support from agencies and private sources. We need your help. If you have ideas or suggestions of people to contact, please let us know. You can be a great resource for us. Currently, the Foundation relies on most of its financial support from yearly membership dues and individual gifts from members. This year, for the first time in the six years of the Foundation's existence, the officers voted to increase dues to:

Individual/family $25.00

Patron/Corporate $50.00

This increase will provide us with the additional funds needed to solicit grants and other forms of funding.

As a way of saying "Thank You!" for your continued support we are giving away a Nez Perce National Historic Trail lapel pin with each membership renewal. These unique and attractive pins, based on the original NPNHT logo, are soon to become collector's items as the new logo takes shape.

We hope you enjoy this newsletter which shares news, announcements, and upcoming events surrounding the Nez Perce Trail. If you have questions, suggestions, or information concerning the newsletter, symposium, Foundation, or anything trailrelated please contact us.

On behalf of the officers of the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation, thank you for your continued support.




Foundation News Brief

What has your Foundation been Doing? Sometimes you just have to "blow your own horn." Your Foundation has been busily involved in several activities that we want you to know about. So, without further ado, here's our "Foundation News Brief."

Business Organization

One of the toughest jobs we tackled is the creation of business documents and planning documents for the Foundation. It required considerable effort. Except for the Foundation Bylaws, these did not exist when elections were held at the 1995 Symposium. Our Foundation documents now include new information on: foundation history, annual schedule and planning calendar, annual budget, annual meeting agenda board of directors, fund raising, funding sources, director qualifications and job descriptions, foundation officer qualifications and job descriptions, literature bibliography, journal publication, expense reimbursement form, board of directors, committees, and chapters, general goals and management plan, organization structure, trail definition, and strategic planning.

National Public Service

The Foundation became nationally accessible in 1996 when its World Wide Web pages and email address were added to the information superhighway. Many email messages come to the Foundation asking for more information about the trail, the Nez Perce people, or about other national trails. Some are by people wanting to join the Foundation, others are from K12 students asking for information that they can use in school projects. Some email comes from people thanking us for providing useful services on the web. Our most touching email, though, was from a college student and her mother living in the east. They wanted to find out how to learn of their Nez Perce roots that had been lost in previous generations. We provided information to help them begin their journey of discovery.

World Wide Web

The NPNHT Foundation was one of the first of the 19 National Historic and Scenic Trails to create a World Wide Web site. The NPNHT Foundation web site contains Trail Map (Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Wyoming), Membership Invitation, Mission Statement, Board of Directors, Bylaws, Foundation History, and 1877 Nez Perce NHT History. It also contains "hot links" to sites pertaining to the Nez Perce Tribe, as well as other national trails. In its first few months of life, our web site was so popular that it had to be moved to the larger university computers to accommodate our visitors.

The NPNHT Foundation has also been the official national host to the web pages and web page links for the other National Historic and Scenic Trails. We offered to do this so that all trails could have the national exposure enjoyed by the NPNHT and also as a service to other volunteer trail groups until they obtained the technology to do their own web pages.

Your Foundation was the first in the nation to offer web links to the federal law database on National Historic and Scenic Trails. This database has been used for research and for understanding the roll of trail advocacy in the federal laws.

National Trails Workshop

In March of 1996, your Foundation was represented at the meeting of the Partnership for the National Trails System in Bethesda, Maryland. This workshop brought officers of the 19 National trails together to learn about each other and develop goals for their respective organizations. Many items were discussed such as fund raising, dues, increasing membership, volunteer recruitment, literature, retail sales, and many others.


Foundation activities and the NPNHT have received publicity in national trail publications and agency newsletters. For example, "Pathways Across America" (a newsletter for national scenic and national historic trails) often carries news items from the NPNHT. The latest issue has three items submitted by the Foundation under the "Trail Notes" heading (Vol. 10, No. 1, Pg. 10). Another example is the article "Auto Tour Brochure Traces Part of Historical 1877 Route" that appeared in the Northern Region News published by the USDA Forest Service. The trail was also featured in the January 1997 edition of "Windspeaker," an aboriginal newspaper published in Canada. The Foundation provided information for the article, written by staff writer R. John Hayes. (The trail was also featured in the CRM Bulletin, November 1996 issue.) Read more about this article in the newsletter.


Did you know that Sandi McFarland, our Foundation secretary, has a master's degree from the University of Idaho in Anthropology? Her thesis, titled "TsoopNitPaLu and a Corridor of Change: Evolution of an Ancient Travel Route NeeMePoo Trail," is a study of the ancient Nez Perce trail, a portion of which makes up the Nez Perce National Historic Trail. Sandi has also been actively involved providing numerous public school presentations and information sharing with various interest groups on trail history. In addition, she supplies information packets to numerous schools, interest groups, and public requests.

Dan Gard, our Treasurer, handles correspondence for the Foundation, along with paying the bills and balancing the books. He's also done considerable writing on behalf of the foundation.

In the Planning Stages. . .

Sandi McFarland, secretary for the Foundation, was asked to serve as a speaker for the Fifth National Conference on National Historic and Scenic Trails, scheduled to meet April 1216 near Orlando, Florida. She will be helping with a workshop entitled "Sacred SitesRespecting Indian Rights and Concerns in Trail Development." The Foundation will be visible with two Foundation representatives, who will have an information booth on site.

The Foundation is planning for the next Board of Directors meeting, Trail Workshop, Trail Symposium, and Summer Trail Ride. We need your help with these activities and are looking for volunteers. If you would like to become involved in an activity, please contact us.

On behalf of the NPNHT Foundation, we hope you've enjoyed this news brief. If you have news or ideas you'd like to share please let us know. Remember, YOU are the Foundation and your active participation is not only welcomed, but needed. Thank you for your support!

Nez Perce National Historical Trail Foundation Newsletter

FebruaryAhlatahmahlthe time of swelling buds (Nez Perce).

By Sandi McFarland

Some Nez Perce have referred to this month as Ilatahmaul, the time the buttercups are starting to bloom. It is said that the small buds on trees and shrubs are beginning to swell and become visible again. This is evidence that the Circle of Life continues.

In the coming New Year may the Creator hear our combined supplications for protection of our loved ones and for Peace to prevail in the world. May the Creator, with loving grace, calm our fears and apprehensions, and help us to become as the new small buds growing in courage, strength and love, and reaching out to comfort others and to ensure that the Circle of Life continues in a balanced, peaceful way.

From the pages of History

Orofino Tribune

August 1954

Walter Squires, county weed control supervisor, found his progress blocked by an eight foot snow drift last week on the Lolo Trail (Nez Perce Trail) Road at Indian Post Office.

The Oregon Motorist

October 1961

Lolo Route is "Si Yah Kits, Iss' Kit." Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson, handsome matriarch of the Nez Perce Tribe, looked along the Lewis and Clark Highway, leading easterly from her home in Kamiah, Idaho and said in the tongue of the Nez Perce: "Si Yah Kits Iss' Kit! Beautiful Road!"

Lewiston Morning Tribune

August 19, 1962

Writing of Mullan's dislike of the Lolo (Nez Perce Trail) terrain historian Alvin M. Josephy Jr. said in an article published in 1958, "It is interesting to note Mullan followed in general the high country trail of the Nez Perces. If he had dropped to the Lochsa and tried to force his way across at water level, he might have been more optimistic though even that route would have been a formidable one."

USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, Regional Office

By Keith Thurlkill, NPNHT Coordinator

The Nez Perce National Historic Trail commemorates a very sad time in history, a time filled with anger and conflict. Many wounds from the 1877 Nez Perce War still have not healed after 120 years. Still, it's rewarding to the strong spirit of cooperation that continues to grow as people work together to strengthen the trail and to keep the lessons learned so long ago, alive in human hearts.

On a personal note, I am honored to have been asked to assume the role of Nez Perce National Historic Trail Coordinator. The Forest Service has been given an important job in administering this trail, and we do not take it lightly. Though I have been involved with the NPNHT for several years, I look forward to working more closely with all those who share ownership of this truly, NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL.

As we enter 1997, ten years have elapsed since Congress designated the Nez Perce National Historic Trail part of the National Trail system. Much progress has been made, but this year we should see some key projects completed that will effect the trail for years to come.

Not least is the work completed by the states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana and Wyoming to make the official NPNHT AutoRoute a reality by installing signs from beginning to end of the trail.

Completion of the Comprehensive Management Plan for Nez Perce Historic Park this year will set the stage for continued preservation and use of many of the most significant sites and areas.

The second NPNHT Symposium, scheduled for this fall and hosted by the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation will once again bring together all the diverse groups Tribes, state and federal agencies, scholars, communities, and citizens who are key to achieving our goals.

May we all meet along the trail as we continue to seek meaning in the journey begun so long ago and not yet ended.


January 1997

By R. John Hayes

Windspeaker Staff Writer

The Flight of the Nez Perce is one of the most bitter chapters of Native American history, as a peaceful tribe was persecuted and pursued for more than 1,870 km in their flight to Canada. They were stopped and surrendered in Montana's Bears Paws Mountains, near Havre, on Oct. 5, 1877, after a chase of nearly four months through what is now four states.

That routethe Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) Trailwas declared a national historic trail by the United States Congress in 1986. It has been developed since then, so that parts of the trail are marked for walkers and hikers, and a route has been chosen so that people can approximate the route in cars.

"We've just finished signing the full route," said Dan Gard, treasurer of the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation, which works with the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service and the Bureau of Land Management, the states and local organizations in implementing the comprehensive trail plan on the ground. "We've reached agreement with the five states and they're putting up highway markers during normal road maintenance."

The route traces the path the Nez Perce followed when they fled from the army. "There are portions of the trail that can be hiked, including pieces of actual trail tread located on the WallowaWhitman, Clearwater and Lolo National Forests, and in Yellowstone National Park," said Gard. However, since the physical evidence of the trail disappeared soon after the 1877 flight, much of today's designated route is an estimation based on historical accounts, research and bestguesses."

The trail will move through a number of different terrains, from the low interior mountains of eastern Oregon, through the Rockies and Montana's Bitterroot Valley through the dry foothills of southcentral Montana into the prairie. Travellers will find many opportunities to find solitude and peace along the route, which passes through the leastpopulated sections of the United States.

The comprehensive plan for the trail includes recognition of 70 historic sites along the route, only a few of which are not of significance to Native Americans. As the trail is fully developed by the contributing bodies, which include representatives from the Nez Perce Tribe in Lapwai, historical and recreational amenities will be developed.

Summer Preview 97

The University of Idaho will be offering a handson summer course where students will visit sites along the NeeMePoo Trail. The course is called, "The Nez Perce: Then and Now." Take advantage of this unique opportunity to study indepth the history and contemporary affairs of an American Indian Tribe in the Pacific Northwest. The course surveys cultural, environmental, and political aspects of the Nez Perce people. Three field trips to the Nez Perce Reservation touring archaeological, cultural, and historical sites, as well as attendance at Chief Joseph Memorial Days Pow Wow in Lapwai are included at no extra cost. Stops at sites within Nez Perce National Historic Site include White Bird Battlefield, Looking Glass Village, Old Fort Lapwai, and the Spalding Mission.

Guest speakers include Allen Slickpoo, Sr., distinguished tribal historian and author of Noon NeeMePoo (We the Nez Perces): Culture and History of the Nez Perces; representatives of the National Park Service; and, officers of the Nez Perce Tribe.

Dates: June 926, Mondays through Thursdays with field trips on June 14 (archaeology); 21 (historic sites and the Chief Joseph Pow Wow); and, 24 (tribal government and life on the reservation today).

Credit: History 404/504 (3 credits)

American Studies 404 (3 Credits)

Instructors: W.R. Swagerty, Associate Professor of History, joined the history faculty of the University of Idaho in 1982 after serving as Associate Director of the DArcy McNickle Center for the History of the American Indian at the Newberry Library in Chicago. He specializes in the history of IndianWhite relations and is currently working on a study of photographic and artistic images of Chief Joseph and his family. Allen Slickpoo, Sr. is widely known as an elder spokesman for the Nez Perce. He has served more than twenty years in tribal government and is currently the Cultural Ethnographer for his tribe. He is also working on a history of the Nez Perce since World War II. Robbin Johnson is a professional archaeologist with the U.S. Forest Service, Clearwater National Forest and is a specialist on villages and fishing sites along the Clearwater and Snake River Systems. He will join the class for the first tour and will explain ancient and historic Nez Perce sites.

The class is limited to 30 students. For more information call 2088856237.

Lolo National Forest

By: Cheryl A. Vanderburg, Public Affairs Officer.

"The Nez Perce TrailThe People and The History"

The Lolo National Forest, Nez Perce Tribe, and the National Park ServiceNez Perce National Historical Park (Spalding Unit) produced a cooperative exhibit at the 1996 Western Montana Fair. This exhibit featured photographs of Nez Perce people and their way of life along the trail. In addition to photographs, replicas or original pieces of artwork that included cornhusk bags, moccasins and several other items were loaned to the Forest Service for this exhibit. The multimedia Class at Rattlesnake Middle School produced a computer touchscreen program "The NeeMePoo" that was also a feature in this exhibit. Jennifer Guiliani, a former Rattlesnake Middle School student, deserves a big thank you for spending several weeks this summer making final edits and changes to the program.

A special feature of the exhibit was the Young Horseman Program of the Nez Perce Tribe. The Young Horseman Program has developed a new breed of horse, the Nez Perce Horse, by crossing AkhalTeke stallions and Appaloosa mares. Under the direction of Rudy Shebala students who participate in this program are learning the value of the horse not only from a cultural aspect but the horse industry itself. Several months ago students in the program designed posters and donated them for the drawing at the Fair.

Nez Perce Youth Hemene ToolaKasson,

Age 12, Clear Creek, Idaho

Cheryl Vanderburg, Lolo National Forest, Public Affairs Officer, who coordinated the Forest Service participation in the Fair said, "It was a real pleasure to work on this project. I went to the Nez Perce Tribe with an idea and that idea became an exhibit that the public really enjoyed."

BeaverheadDeerlodge National Forest

By: Mike Ryan, Forest Archaeologist

During the 1996 field season 24 Passport In Time volunteers worked on a project designed to locate and evaluate prehistoric and historic sites on a portion of the Lewis and Clark/NeeMePoo Trails along Trail Creek, a drainage leading to the Big Hole Valley and the site of the 1877 Battle of the Big Hole.

Prior to beginning archaeological survey work volunteers were given an extensive orientation which discussed the principles and methods of anthropology and archaeology, survey methodology, basic instruction in lithic technology and area culture history.

The rest of the weeklong session was spent in intensive archaeological survey of a portion of the Trail Creek Valley. Volunteers also assisted in the evaluation of a previously identified lithic scatter.

During several evening sessions PIT volunteers were treated to other experiences which helped enhance their understanding and appreciation for the culture history of the Trail and events associated with it. One evening was spent at the Big Hole Battlefield National Historic Site where PIT volunteers received a private, indepth, presentation on Nez Perce culture and events surrounding the Battle of the Big Hole. During another evening session volunteers were presented with an evenings instruction and handson training in various primitive skills including flint knapping, cordage making, hide tanning and arrow shaft straightening. Participants also had the opportunity to throw darts with an atlatl. This exercise fostered a real understanding of the limitations faced by prehistoric hunters, and an appreciation for the skill required to subsist on the Montana landscape.

While the project was very worthwhile in both an educational and resource management sense, it posed as many questions as it answered. Chief among these is why was there so little evidence of prehistoric use along Trail Creek when we know ethnohistorically that this portion of the NeeMePoo Trail was likely used for at least the last several thousand years.

Salmon/Challis National Forest

By Merry Hayden, Archaeologist

The Salmon/Challis National Forest recently announced plans to conduct Passport In Time (PIT) projects related to the NPNHT. The first one, titled "Lewis & Clark National Historic Trail Inventory," takes place along a portion of the Lewis & Clark NHT in eastern Idaho. This route crosses the NPNHT just east of Lemhi Pass in western Montana. PIT volunteers will assist Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management archaeologists, along with local L&C historians, in locating, mapping, and signing of the historic L&C Trail. Volunteers will use maps from the expedition's journals to match present day landscapes with those recorded in 1805. The project runs five days from August 1115. For more information contact Merry Hayden, Salmon/Challis National Forest at 2087565116.

The second PIT project takes place September 812. Titled "Nez Perce Rifle Pits," the project's focus is a series of shallow depressions that some speculate are rifle pits associated with the 1877 Nez Perce flight. Following the battle of the Big Hole in 1877, the nontreaty Nez Perce crossed Bannack Pass and entered Idaho Territory. After avoiding a confrontation at the fortified town of Junction, the Nez Perce moved south and camped near the mouth of what is today Nez Perce Canyon. There, it is believed they dug rifle fortifications or pits, in the event of an attack by local settlers. No attack occurred and the Nez Perce continued on their journey to the plains of Montana.

Led by Salmon/Challis Forest Archaeologist, Steve Matz, volunteers will inventory and record cultural features associated with this historic event. Crews will map and describe the "pits" in order to help determine future research needs and management activities at the site and surrounding area. For more information contact Steve Matz at 2087565116.

BeaverheadDeerlodge National Forest

By Debra Gale, Recreation Forester

The auto tour brochure compiled from research Dan Gard accomplished in 1994 and Chris Hagelin did in 1993 is out for comments. This effort was in conjunction with the SalmonChallis National Forest and will show the approximate route and describe events and actions as the Nez Perce and military passed through southwestern Montana and eastern Idaho. Publication should be available for visitors by June 1997.

The Appaloosa Horse Club will be riding a section of the Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) Trail from the Big Hole Battlefield to Leadore, Idaho this July 26August 2, 1997. The Appaloosa Horse Club sanctions various activities to promote the Appaloosa horse. One of these activities is the Chief Joseph Trail Ride. These rides were started 32 years ago. The purpose of the trail ride is to retrace as close as possible the route of the Nez Perce in its attempt to escape the United States Army in 1877. This will mark the 3rd time that the Appaloosa Horse Club has traveled this historic trail. Riding approximately 100 miles each year it takes 13 years to traverse the route. The forest anticipates 250 riders and 150 nonriders and support vehicles. They will camp two nights on the Wisdom District and two nights on Leadore districts and the last two nights will be on private land.

Clearwater National Forest

By Sandi McFarland, Archaeologist

The Clearwater National Forest is conducting an ethnographic study of the Lolo Trail System. This study is proposed to consist of several phases and cover a duration of at least three years.

The Ethnographic study has been contracted to the University of Idaho under the direction of Dr. Roderick Sprague. The goal of this contract in phase one is to acquire an overview of ethnographic information concerning the use of the Clearwater National Forest within the Lolo Trail System Corridor by the Nez Perce people. The Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) Trail is one of five travel routes officially included in the Lolo Trail System.

This information will permit informed decisions to be made about the possible effects land management strategies and tactics may have on traditional beliefs and values of the Nez Perce Indians using these areas. Phase one will be completed in October 1997. Subsequent phases will address EuroAmerican use (trapping, mining, etc.) and other Indian tribal usage.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

By Susan Sawyer/Virginia Parks

Imagine This: Climbing a short distance up a hill across from Kooskia National Fish Hatchery in Kooskia, Idaho, you look west toward the confluence of Clear Creek and the Middle Fork of the Clearwater River. In the fringe of trees behind you, deer cautiously graze on the lush grass. A flock of Canada geese touch down in a small pond beside the river to join an assortment of waterfowl. A meandering trail winds along the edge of the pond, separated from large platform nesting boxes by a splitrail fence. From your vantage point, it's easy to understand what has drawn people to this spot for generations. Without taxing your imagination you can transport yourself back two thousand years to the time when the NeeMePoo, ancestors of today's Nez Perce Indians, gathered at this spot to hunt, fish, and collect roots following the seasonal cycles of plants and animals.

Soon, the story of the Nez Perce and their ancestors at this place will come alive again. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), which manages Kooskia Fish Hatchery, is developing a network of short, accessible trails which will interpret the rich cultural and natural history of the area. Working with the Nez Perce Tribe, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office, and the University of Idaho, Moscow, the USFWS has begun an archaeological testing program to cover details about the prehistoric and historic uses of the land. In conjunction with historical accounts, this archaeological data will form the core of the trails' cultural interpretive content.

Temporary signs are currently in place at the entrance to the mill pond trail, identifying the more common birds and wildlife seen here. Future plans call for an observation platform with benches nestled under the tall pines; permanent displays, an interpretive brochure and trail signs will tell of the unique relationship between humans and nature in this quiet setting. Quiet now, but not 120 years ago.

Return to the imaginary landscape, early on the morning of July 1, 1877. Young Chief Looking Glass (Eleimya teke' nin) and his band are just waking. They have settled a permanent village at this traditional camping site to maintain their neutrality in the escalating conflict between the Nez Perce and the U.S. Government. Suddenly, two calvary companies and 20 civilian volunteers appear on the crest of the ridge above the village. Led by Captain Steven Whipple under orders from General Howard, this force demands the surrender of Looking Glass despite his efforts to explain the band's peaceful intentions. A blast from a volunteer's rifle puts an end to negotiations and triggers a raid of the village during which 700 horses and cattle are rounded up, several Indians are wounded, and a mother and her baby drown as they attempt to flee across the river. Many of the settlement's inhabitants run right past where you stand and into the hills to hide.

After the attack, an outraged Looking Glass stands among the burned and looted tipis. The decision to join the nontreaty bands on Camas Prairie comes easily. Looking Glass's subsequent role in determining the route of the Nez Perce flight toward Canada distinguishes the Clear Creek attack as an important event in the prologue to the Nez Perce War. Today, the site of the attack is marked by a solitary monument, one of six erected at battle sites in 1928 to commemorate the war.

The hatchery and mill pond trail are open daily, 7:30 a.m. until dark. Take the east Kooskia city exit off Highway 12, then turn left at the first road across the bridge. The Hatchery entrance is 2 miles further, on the right. The trail is across from the hatchery entrance, 100 yards down the country road. We look forward to your visit!

For more information about the interpretive project at Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, please contact Susan Sawyer 2084764591 or Virginia Parks 5026254377.

View From Hillside above Mill Pond Trail at Kooskia Nat'l. Fish Hatchery. Below is Chief Looking Glass Village site, where 1877 battle began.

McWhorter Plaque and Marker on battle site. Pictured are (LR) Kip Bottomley, Manager of Kooskia Fish hatchery, Debbie Martin, Kris Perry, USFS (Lochsa District), Otis Halfmoon, NPNHP.

This is for Caption Two

Appaloosa Horse Club's Chief Joseph Trail Ride

Each year the Chief Joseph Trail Ride, an event of the National Appaloosa Horse Club, traverses a 100 mile section of the 1300 mile Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) National Historic Trail. The club is recognized as having one of the oldest organized rides on this trail with at least 27 years involvement. It takes 13 years to complete the route, and the group is presently on the seventh circuit. In 1996, they rode the section from Darby, Montana to Wisdom, Montana with the termination camp near the Big Hole National Battlefield.

Some 400 people participated either riding or working in camp bringing some 200 horses to complete the trip. Plans for 1997 are underway for the group to start at the Big Hole National Battlefield and continue in a southerly direction to Bannock Pass on the Montana/Idaho border.

The trip will take them through a portion of the Bitterroot and Salmon National Forests, traveling down the Continental Divide. It is reported that this is one of the more scenic portions of the trail. The ride is scheduled for July 27August 2, 1997. The cost is $325.00 per rider and $275.00 for a nonrider. Children 1218 can ride for $250.00. Riders must be members of the Appaloosa Horse Club and ride registered Appaloosa's. Applications are due July 1, 1997.

For more information contact Lars Strandbakke at the Appaloosa Horse Club in Moscow, Idaho at 2088825578 or Fax 2088828150.

Personnel Changes

Mary Horstman, (historian, Lolo National Forest), has recently moved for a position at the Bitterroot National Forest. Mary served as the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Field Representative working hard to secure agreements on designation and signing of a NPNHT auto route on existing roads paralleling the trail.

Mary did a superb job in accomplishing this task. Her new role will be the Forest Archaeologist on the Bitterroot National Forest. Please feel free to contact Mary at 4063637183 or DG :R01F03A or mailing address, Bitterroot National Forest, 1801 N. 1st. Street, Hamilton, MT 59840.

CRM Bulletin

The November 1996 issue of the CRM Bulletin, carried an article on the Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) National Historic Trail. The article is titled, "One TrailMany Meanings, The Lolo Trail," by Sandi McFarland. Sandi is the secretary of the NPNHT Foundation and a long time advocate for the trail. She served as a member of the Advisory Council since 1989 providing guidance on the development and management of the NeeMePoo Trail. She also served on the Interpretive Charrette group to assist in developing an interpretive plan for the trail. The CRM Bulletin is a professional magazine produced by the National Park Service highlighting stories concerning the protection, preservation, and conservation of our nations heritage.

Promotional Aids

NPNHT Display

The Nez Perce National Historic Trail display is available for loan. There are two 8' x 10' freestanding exhibits consisting of colorful maps, graphics, and historic information on the Nez Perce Trail. The displays are perfect for meetings, fairs, visitor centers, schools, or special events. To obtain more information or reserve this display, contact the Forest Service Region One at 4063293226.

What's New on the Trail

Keith Thurlkill, USFS Northern Region Interpretive Specialist, is the new Trail Coordinator for the Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) National Historic Trail. Keith takes over the role held by Mike Beckes, Heritage Program Manager. Keith has extensive experience working with NPNHT. He took part in the 1991 Nez Perce Trail dedication, a number of interagency and tribal coordination meetings, as well and a planning Interpretive Charette. Keith is currently working with various Lewis & Clark Bicentennial groups on longrange planning.

NPNHT Foundation URL Website Address is:

Joseph Band and USDA Forest Service recently collaborated on a new exhibit for the Colville Confederated Tribal Museum at Coulee Dam, Washington. The exhibit tells the story of the Nez Perce War of 1877, and how the Joseph Band came to live on the Colville Reservation. It includes a map of NPNHT, numerous historical photos, narration on the role of women and a dedication to Joe Redthunder. A true partnership from concept to completion, elder Frank Andrews wrote most of the text and Joseph Band members made numerous suggestions about what they wanted to see included. Dan Gard, FS historic archivist turned the ideas into reality with the assistance of other FS staff in Missoula.

Bureau of Land Management, Lewistown District Office

By Clark W. Whitehead

The kiosk which provides interpretive material about the Nez Perce NHT along the Missouri Breaks National Backcountry Byway near Winifred was vandalized this past year. The BLM is in the process of repairing the damage inflicted by shotgun blasts to the panels.

This summer the BLM is planning to use the seasonal river rangers along the Upper Missouri National Wild & Scenic River (UMNWSR) to install Nez Perce NHT markers near the Cow Island area where the route crosses this waterway.

This past visitor use season (1996) nearly 1500 people visited this segment of the trail as they floated the lower portion of the UMNWSR. An estimated additional 1500 vehicles crossed segments of the Nez Perce NHT while travelers were utilizing the backcountry byway route mentioned previously.

New trail markers are being installed by the Montana Department of Transportation at key highway intersections within the Lewistown District. A minimum of five sites have been identified.

Nez Perce National Historical Park

Nez Perce National Historical Park recently conducted 16 public meetings in Oregon, Washington, Idaho and Montana concerning the draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement released to the public October 11, 1996. The purpose of the meetings was to answer questions and to help individuals better understand the impacts of the plan and how it might affect them. Over 500 people attended the meetings. The public comment period ended on December 11 with over 650 letters received from the public concerning the plan. Once each of the issues is adequately addressed, the final plan will be released later this spring.

The major public concern was about the proposed park boundaries which in some cases included private lands. The site boundaries proposed in the Draft GMP/EIS were completely voluntary upon the part of the landowner(s). The National Park Service was neither proposing to purchase privatelyowned lands nor to force changes in land use within those proposed boundaries. Rather, once a site boundary was established, it will give the National Park Service the ability to work with individual landowners through a cooperative agreement to achieve the desired resource protection and visitor education objectives. During the public review period on the Draft GMP/EIS, landowners could request that they be removed from the proposed boundary. The final site boundaries will not be established without the willing support of all landowners within a particular boundary.

Paul Henderson, unit manager for the Oregon/Washington National Park Service Unit, has accepted a position as Chief Ranger at Canyon Lands' Arches and Natural Bridges in southeast Utah. He will be missed. Tim Nitz will be filling in as interim unit manager.

Halfmoon transfers to the White Bird/Upper Clearwater Unit:

Otis Halfmoon, the first permanent National Park Service ranger to be stationed at the Bear Paw Battlefield Site has accepted a reassignment to become the White Bird/Upper Clearwater Unit Manager of the park. Otis will be responsible for 15 of the 38 park sites including the White Bird Battlefield, Canoe Camp, Heart of the Monster and other cooperative sites located in Idaho. His office is located in the Grangeville Post Office. Halfmoon joined the NPS in 1990 at Big Hole National Battlefield and served as the Park Ranger there for 2 1/2 years. He then transferred to Big Horn Canyon National Recreation Area as a Ranger before being assigned to Bear Paw in 1995. Otis takes Mark O'Neill's position following Mark's transfer to Olympic National Park in October. Otis says "I enjoyed my time in buffalo country the last six years, but it feels good to be home once again". The park plans to fill Otis's position at Bear Paw later this spring.

Upcoming Programs and Special Events

For further information on the following programs call the park at 2088432261.

March 15 Nez Perce Flute Workshop

Learn about Nez Perce flutes through stories and slides. Create your own flute with instruction from Nez Perce flute makers Kevin Peters and J.R. Spencer. Cost is $15. Registration is limited and is required by March 11. 9 a.m.4p.m., Spalding Site Visitor Center.

March 22 Egg Extravaganza

Intricately carved and painted eggs by Nez Perce artist Rhonda Broncheau will be on display at the Spalding Site Visitor Center the week of March 1623. A special carving demonstration and artist reception is planned for March 22 from 14 p.m. Come see the extraordinary artwork made from an "ordinary" egg.

April 26 Idaho Archeology Week Bus Tour

Is "Coyote" still traveling through Nez Perce Country? Join a Nez Perce guide, Park Service staff & a local archeologist to hear about & see where the history of the Nez Perce people was & is taking place. 9 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. starting at Spalding Site Visitor Center. Preregistration and fee required.

1996 In Review

By Charles Moses, Jr.

Member of Chief Joseph Band of the Colville Confederated Tribe

Let us start from the Symposium held in Lewiston, October 1995.

The Chief Joseph Band had very good representation along with the Idaho Nez Perce and the Umatilla Tribe. Each of our delegates gave a talk on one or more topics assigned. We were pleased with the Symposium and hope to be included in future meetings on the Nez Perce National Historic Trail or Nez Perce National Park.

We came away from the meeting with a better understanding of the Trail and the Park and met some of the People whose responsibility it is to manage the same. It is good to know the face behind the name and better yet to have communicated with the person. The Symposium broadened the number of people we have involved in the Trail and the park.

The Chief Joseph Band

The Nespelem community puts on a number of activities throughout the year. Some of the functions are of the Chief Joseph Band and some are in conjunction with the other Indian tribes of the Colville Tribes. Our largest function is our 4th of July encampment. Campers start pitching their teepees sometime before the 4th. If there has been a death in the family then the family opens a camp with a memorial dinner and giveaway. On the 3rd we have our memorial horse parade where old buckskin and horse regalia is brought out and paraded. The parade is led by one of our leaders and as many riders as we can mount. The Parade was started about the time the Chief Joseph Band arrived and we have carried on the tradition. We didn't have a parade for a few years but realized it was a very important part of our tradition. We believe that the old outfits have a life of their own and need to be brought out every so often to breath. On the 4th we honor our elders by providing a dinner in their honor and feed well over 500 people. The week is filled with activities and about Wednesday most of the teepees are up. On Thursday we start the Contest dancing until the final day, Sunday. Along with the contest dancing we provide space for Indian traditional card games and stick games. Venders of Indian goods have their stands and we have several food stands and they are gauged by how good their fried bread is. We are in a multistaged renovation of the encampment grounds. Come join us for a trip back into history. There is no charge for admission.

The Nespelem community have several weekend celebrations to honor our Veterans and other important occasions.

The Nez Perce Long House opens to the public their two traditional feasts to provide the public a better understanding of our religion WalahShut (Seven Drum) and our traditional foods. The actual dates of the feasts are in conjunction with ripening of the roots and berries. The root feast is usually held in early spring and the berry feast is held in midJuly when the huckleberry begins to ripen. Members of the band cannot go out to dig the roots until after the root feast and berries cannot be picked until after the berry feast. Please call for a specific date and plan to spend a Sunday with us at the Nez Perce Long House listening to the traditional songs of the long house followed by a feast of the traditional foods.

Pictured Left to Right:

Frank Andrews, Tribal Historian, Cheryl Grunloe, Colville Tribal Museum Curator, Charlie Moses, Jr., VicePresident NPNHT Foundation.





"More than an autobiography, his story is the document of a people's struggle."

American Library Association Booklist

Confluence Press is pleased to announce the publication of the first Nez Perce memoir in fiftysix years and the first ever told exclusively in English: A Little Bit of Wisdom: Conversations with a Nez Perce Elder by Horace Axtell and Margo Aragon. The last Nez Perce elder to tell his own story in book form was Himiin Maqsmaqs, better known as "Yellow Wolf", whose words were translated into English and edited by Lucullus V. McWhorter before being published in 1940.

Unlike the majority of volumes concerning Nez Perce culture, which focus on the 1877 war, A Little Bit of Wisdom concentrates on the life of a contemporary Nez Perce man, Horace Axtell, who was born and raised on a windy Idaho prairie not far from the presentday town of Ferdinand in northcentral Idaho. Today, Axtell is an instructor of Nez Perce Language at LewisClark State College in Lewiston, Idaho. He is also a respected spiritual leader who practices the Seven Drum religion and speaks and lectures throughout the United States. A skilled drum maker, dancer, and singer Horace also performs public services and assists with the Nez Perce Tribal Wolf Education and Research Center.

"But I wasn't always this way," Axtell, a retired Potlatch worker, told his collaborator, Margo Aragon, when they first met back in 1992. He might have been referring to any number of changes he has made in his own life. Although he grew up wellversed in traditional Nez Perce ways and speaking only The Prairie dialect of his people, his grandmother raised him as a Christian. It wasn't until much later that he began practicing the Nez Perce religion. During World War II he served in the military, but after his discharge from the service he returned to Idaho and committed a foolish mistake that cost him a term in prison. "I want peopleespecially young peopleto know that you can change," he said in a recent interview with Diane Miles of the National Park Service when asked why he had agreed to tell his story to Aragon. "I want young people to know that even if you hit rock bottomlike I didthere's still a chance to come back and become a respected person."

"From the moment I first interviewed Horace I knew he was somebody special," Aragon once remarked to publisher James R. Hepworth, who commissioned the book back in 1992 when Aragon was still an undergraduate student at LewisClark State College. While there she distinguished herself by cofounding the college's literary magazine, The Talking River Review, and winning two first place awards in a creative writing contest judged by Sherman Alexi, the young Native American writer who is still taking the American literary world by storm. She also wrote and produced an award winning video documentary NeeMeePoo: The Power of Our Dance. The book she and Axtell have compiled, A Little Bit of Wisdom, has been four years in the making. They initially met when Aragon interviewed him for her documentary.

"When I first asked him if he would be interested in collaborating on a book," Aragon recalls, "Horace hesitated. He said he'd have to think about it. And he did. Horace always does things in his own special way." Once Axtell agreed to put his life on record, Aragon says, the recording and transcription of the interviews took at least a year to complete." Then Aragon, who graduated with a Master of Fine Arts degree from Bennington College in Vermont last June, set about removing her questions from the text and putting Axtell's stories together in "some kind of order."

The result is a continuous flow of seemingly spontaneous narrative that comes forth in Axtell's own plainspoken style. "I wanted the readers of our book to hear the voice of the narrator speaking in the oral tradition," Aragon says in regard to her job of recording, transcribing, and editing the text. "In the Nez Perce tradition, stories are most often told, not written, and in shaping the book for publication I tried to come as close to Horace's spoken voice as possible." Axtell's unconventional English is part of what makes him such an eloquent speaker. He isn't afraid to be himself.

Currently, Aragon is the host of a popular morning interview television show, "Northwest Morning," which airs on KLEWTV from Lewiston. It's the first and only television show to include Nez Perce words and phrases. She routinely produces video segments about contemporary issues in eastern Washington and northcentral Idaho. To schedule an interview or book signing, please call the publisher at 2087992336 or contact Margo Aragon at 2087462636.

Publication of A Little Bit of Wisdom is made possible by grants from William Hewlett, The LewisClark State College Foundation, and the Idaho Commission on the Arts.

Confluence Press will publish A Little Bit of Wisdom on February 21, 1997

ISBN 188109023X 5 1/4 x 8 1/2

230 pages 30 black & white photographs

$25.00 cloth

Personal Appearances and Booksigning are in the process of being finalized for the cities of

Moscow, Pullman, Enterprise, Spokane, Portland, Seattle, Denver, and Chicago

About the Authors


A Little Bit of Wisdom

Horace P. Axtell is a Nez Perce Tribal elder and leader of the Long House who lives in Idaho, with his wife, Andrea. He teaches the Nez Perce language class at LewisClark State College in Lewiston, Idaho, and lectures all over the world on the subject of Nez Perce culture. He is frequently photographed and quoted in major newspapers and magazines such as USA Today and The New Yorker. His life is the subject of the first individual Nez Perce narrative ever told in English and the first published in more than half a century. He has also been the subject of many film documentaries, most recently Sacred Journey of the Nez Perce, narrated by CBS correspondent Hattie Kauffman.

Margo Aragon is of Mexican Portuguese ancestry and lives in Lewiston, Idaho, with her husband, David Sears. She received her BA in English from LewisClark State College and her MFA from Bennington College in Vermont. Margo currently hosts a bilingual (English and Nez Perce languages) television interview show. Her awardwinning video NeeMeePoo: The Power of Our Dance featured Nez Perce dancers discussing the importance of their dancing. For the past three years she has videotaped Horace Axtell's Nez Perce language class for the language video archives and is working to become fluent in the language. She also teaches an Elderhostel class for LewisClark State College and occasional scriptwriting workshops.

Photograph by Mark La Moreaux Pictured from Left to Right Margo Aragon & Horace Axtell


PULLMAN, Washington In 1903, Lucullus Virgil McWhorter (18601944) sold his Ohio farm, and headed west to Yakima, Washington, with his wife and three children, to fulfill a lifelong dream to "meet the Indians." Over the next three decades, McWhorter devoted much of his life to preserving the history of the Nez Perce Indians. In a new WSU Press book, "Voice of the Old Wolf: Lucullus McWhorter and the Nez Perce Indians," Lapwai, Idaho, author Steven Ross Evans explores McWhorter's role as a friend to and historian of the Nez Perce people.

An amateur archaeologist and one of the founders of the American Archaeological Association's official journal, McWhorter had an interest in the Indian rights movement dating back to his West Virginia childhood. There, his interest was sparked by stories told by pioneers who clashed with Indians who had claimed the region as their hunting grounds.

"After moving to Yakima, McWhorter devoted much of his life to preserving the history of the Nez Perce Indians of the Pacific Northwest's interior plateau region. He befriended veterans of the 1877 Nez Perce war, in particular, Yellow Wolf, whose friendship was sealed in a ritual that made the two men "brothers." McWhorter was a supporter of Nez Perce and Yakima traditional artsdrumming, dancing, and singingand, as a result, often collided with Bureau of Indian Affairs officials who saw him as an ally of the Indians they called "nonprogressives."

McWhorter's nowclassic Western histories, "Yellow Wolf" (1940) and "Hear Me, My Chiefs!" (published posthumously in 1952), established his international reputation as a scholar of the Nez Perce Indians.

Steven Ross Evans is a professor of history at LewisClark State College, Lewiston, Idaho. In addition to researching Nez Perce history and photographs in private and public collections, Steve and his wife Connie make tipis and raise horses at their home in the Lapwai Valley on the Nez Perce Indian Reservation in Idaho.

Noted Nez Perce historian Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., called "Voice of the Old Wolf," "a gem of a bookin many ways one of the most informed on Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce Indians ever writtenrich in its humanity, filled with the struggle and sadness of patriots and genuine heroes, and inspiring in its central tale of a wonderful man who did as much as anyone elseand perhaps moreto bring about realistic writing on American Indian history."

For his research for "Voice of the Old Wolf," Evans made extensive use of the L.V. McWhorter Collection in Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections at Washington State University in Pullman. In addition, the WSU Museum of Anthropology holds the McWhorter Collection, that includes Indian artifacts collected by McWhorter, as well as personal items used by McWhorter when he participated in Indian ceremonies.

"Voice of the Old Wolf" is a 250page book, featuring 47 blackandwhite photographs, maps, and other illustrations. It is available for $19.95 in paperback, $32 in hardcover, at bookstores throughout the region, or by calling WSU Press at 8003547360.

NPNHT Foundation Summer Outing

The NPNHT Foundation is planning a three day field trip this summer (JulyAugust). The trip will start at Musselshell Meadows with a camp set up and include riding/walking a short segment of the NeeMePoo Trail. The group will camp at the meadows.

The following day will start with a horse ride or walk over the trail to Weitas Meadows where they will camp for the night. Evening campfire talks include topics concerning future trail management concerns, L&C Bicentennial activities, trail history and Nez Perce Legends.

The Nez Perce Tribe Young Horseman's Program, and the Mounted Scholars are scheduled to join in this mini trail ride. Dates, times and a formal agenda are being finalized. Everyone is responsible for their own camping and food arrangements .

We invite all foundation members to join us for a NeeMePoo trail experience. For more information contact the Nez Perce National Historic Trail Foundation, P.O. Box 20197, Missoula, MT 59801 or our website: Please feel free to contact Sandi McFarland, Foundation Secretary, at (208)4764541.

Lewis and Clark Related Information for NPNHT Foundation Members

Several Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail items of Potential interest to Foundation Members are enclosed.

V The video by Robin Williams Films has footage of the Lolo Trail and Weippe Prairie. The Nez Perce at Weippe Prairie helped the expedition recover from hunger and continue their way to the Columbia River.

V Horace Axtell and Allen Slickpoo, Sr. of the Nez Perce Tribe were among the consultants that assisted with a fourvolume CDRom history entitled "Discovering Lewis and Clark." Weippe Prairie is included in Volume One.

V Update on Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Meetings.

V Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center.

New Video

"The Trail" Lewis & Clark Expedition 18031806

An authentic retracing of that epic journey!

This film allows the audience to see the background planning and implementation of America's most important expedition. The film begins at Jefferson's home of Monticello and takes us to Lewis's birthplace and boyhood home at Locust Hill. Fincastle, Virginia where William Clark married Judith Hancock. Poplar Forest where Jefferson would go to relax and read books from his personal library which would become the foundation of the Library of Congress. On to Harpers Ferry where Lewis collects his equipment from the Armory. To Elizabeth, Pennsylvania to acquire a keel boat for the Journey up the Missouri River. The film shows the descendants of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.

A total of thirtythree people including a woman, her infant son, a black slave, halfbreed Indian interpreters, U.S. soldiers and nine frontiersmen from Kentucky went all the way to the Pacific Ocean using keel boats, canoes, horses and their own foot power. The trail takes them on the Missouri River from St. Lewis to Three Forks, Montana where they drag their canoes up the Jefferson River to climb over the Continental Divide and meet the Shoshone Indians. Sacajawea recognizes the chief as her own brother whom she has not seen since she was kidnapped six years previous. The crossing of the Bitterroot Mountains presented them with freezing temperatures and starvation. The Nez Perce Indians helped them with food and dug out canoes to proceed to the Snake River and Columbia River and on to the Pacific Ocean. The footage includes filming on the Lolo Trail (Nez Perce Trail) and the Weippe Prairie.

This film by Robin D. Williams is available through the North West Interpretive Association, the Clearwater National Forest Supervisor's Office for $29.95. Or you can order by writing or calling: Robin Williams Films, 1277 So. Coast Hwy., Laguna Beach, CA 92651 Phone 7144943307. Make checks payable to Robin Williams Films.

CDROM Discovering Lewis and Clark

Discovering Lewis and Clark is the title for a fourvolume CDROM/DVD series soon to be produced by VIA's, Inc. The title itself suggest the approachlooking back through 200 years of intervening history to rediscover the Lewis and Clark Expedition, as well as the land and the people of the Northwest as they were in 18031806.

Volume One will deal with the expedition's journey from Weippe Prairie to the mouth of the Columbia and back. Later volumes will cover the route between Fort Mandan, in North Dakota, and Weippe Prairie, including segments of the Nez Perce (NeeMePoo) National Historic Trail.

Cultural specialists from tribes along the Lewis and Clark Trail will assist with presentations on tribal life, and take part in onscreen discussions of historical as well as contemporary issues. Gail Chehak of the Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians, will supervise these details for Volume One.

Consultants include Horace Axtell and Allen Slickpoo, Sr. of the Nez Perce Tribe, and Marilyn Malatare of the Yakima Nation Museum in Toppenish, Washington.

Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Planning Meetings

Meetings have been underway to plan for the upcoming Lewis and Clark Bicentennial in the state of Idaho. The celebration will begin in the spring of 2003 at Monticello (home of Thomas Jefferson) and end in the Portland area in the year 2006. Chuck Raddon (Clearwater National Forest) said the main objective of the organization phase is how Idaho intends to deal with the bicentennial during the celebration period of the years 20032006 with the Idaho portion primarily 2005.

The National picture could possibly include bus tours, tribal encampments, town celebrations, living history, interpretation centers and many school activities involving our children.

The Regional picture has plans of a native perspective book about Sacajawea, tribal encampments, trail rides, reenactments and interpretive centers.

The State is just in the beginning stage of planning projects and activities. The governor supports the grassroots efforts. We need to set up our goals and objectives to look beyond the year 2006. We need to show why the whole state should be celebrating, not just a portion of the state. The Forest Service has already completed a site selection survey for an interpretation center of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial and is available for use.

The outcome of this meeting was the development of a steering committee consisting of representatives from the following:

Tribal, Parks, Historical, Community, Idaho Department of Commerce, Education, Tourism, and Forest Service.

The steering committee will present recommendations to the Governor for a chairperson to oversee and coordinate ideas and activities to avoid duplication and conflicting celebrations.

L&C Center

A new $6million Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center near Great Falls, Montana, is being built on a bluff above the Missouri River near Giant Springs Heritage State Park.

Displays for the center are scheduled to arrive in the fall of 1997. The center should open in January or February 1998.

The Annual convention of the Lewis and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation will be held in Great Falls in August 1998. Attendance could include as many as 300 Foundation members.